Snake Game InProgrammer

Snake Game using Python

In this article, we will discuss how to create a Snake game in python.

Introduction :

We all played snake game when we are kids. But have you ever dreamt of making it on your own? In this article, we are going to know each step involved in creating a snake game using python.
Before moving on, let’s have a quick look at all the modules used to build the Snake Game in Python.

Outline :

In this project, we won’t take any input from the user. We just write the code and run it. The snake game will be displayed in the separate window provided by the “tkinter” package.

Project Prerequisites:

You don’t have to install any packages in order to run this snake game project.

tkinter : This is a famous python package used to display various animations, windows and in-built methods for building games in python and Tkinter actually comes along when we install Python.

Thats it…! We just don’t need to install this one package for this project.

Code Implementation :

lets get started….

The first thing we need to do is to imoprt the required packages and modules. In this project we use methods from tkinter package and random module. So, lets first import them.

from tkinter import *
import random

After the import section we need to define our specifications like

GAME_WIDTH700
GAME_HEIGHT700
SPEED100
SPACE_SIZE50
BODY_PARTS3
SNAKE_COLOR#00FF00
FOOD_COLOR#FF0000
BACKGROUND_COLOR#000000

Here is our next coding section

GAME_WIDTH = 700
GAME_HEIGHT = 700
SPEED = 100
SPACE_SIZE = 50
BODY_PARTS = 3
SNAKE_COLOR = "#00FF00"
FOOD_COLOR = "#FF0000"
BACKGROUND_COLOR = "#000000"

In the next section we start implementing the main part of our project.
The first thing is we need to write a class called Snake for initializing all of its properties.

class Snake:

    def __init__(self):
        self.body_size = BODY_PARTS
        self.coordinates = []
        self.squares = []

        for i in range(0, BODY_PARTS):
            self.coordinates.append([0, 0])

        for x, y in self.coordinates:
            square = canvas.create_rectangle(x, y, x + SPACE_SIZE, y + SPACE_SIZE, fill=SNAKE_COLOR, tag="snake")
            self.squares.append(square)

In this section we will create a class called Food and define where the food has to be popped up randomly.

class Food:

    def __init__(self):

        x = random.randint(0, (GAME_WIDTH / SPACE_SIZE)-1) * SPACE_SIZE
        y = random.randint(0, (GAME_HEIGHT / SPACE_SIZE) - 1) * SPACE_SIZE

        self.coordinates = [x, y]

        canvas.create_oval(x, y, x + SPACE_SIZE, y + SPACE_SIZE, fill=FOOD_COLOR, tag="food")

In this section, we will create all the functions required to change dirrections of the snake and check collisiions with the boundaries.

def next_turn(snake, food):

    x, y = snake.coordinates[0]

    if direction == "up":
        y -= SPACE_SIZE
    elif direction == "down":
        y += SPACE_SIZE
    elif direction == "left":
        x -= SPACE_SIZE
    elif direction == "right":
        x += SPACE_SIZE

    snake.coordinates.insert(0, (x, y))

    square = canvas.create_rectangle(x, y, x + SPACE_SIZE, y + SPACE_SIZE, fill=SNAKE_COLOR)

    snake.squares.insert(0, square)

    if x == food.coordinates[0] and y == food.coordinates[1]:

        global score

        score += 1

        label.config(text="Score:{}".format(score))

        canvas.delete("food")

        food = Food()

    else:

        del snake.coordinates[-1]

        canvas.delete(snake.squares[-1])

        del snake.squares[-1]

    if check_collisions(snake):
        game_over()

    else:
        window.after(SPEED, next_turn, snake, food)


def change_direction(new_direction):

    global direction

    if new_direction == 'left':
        if direction != 'right':
            direction = new_direction
    elif new_direction == 'right':
        if direction != 'left':
            direction = new_direction
    elif new_direction == 'up':
        if direction != 'down':
            direction = new_direction
    elif new_direction == 'down':
        if direction != 'up':
            direction = new_direction


def check_collisions(snake):

    x, y = snake.coordinates[0]

    if x < 0 or x >= GAME_WIDTH:
        return True
    elif y < 0 or y >= GAME_HEIGHT:
        return True

    for body_part in snake.coordinates[1:]:
        if x == body_part[0] and y == body_part[1]:
            return True

    return False

Now, we will write the function to implement gameover functionality.

def game_over():

    canvas.delete(ALL)
    canvas.create_text(canvas.winfo_width()/2, canvas.winfo_height()/2,
                       font=('consolas',70), text="GAME OVER", fill="red", tag="gameover")

We are at the last step of this project. Now, we will create a window object, create a snake with the defined properties from its class called Snake. We will create objects for all the defined classes and implement the funcitons like following.

window = Tk()
window.title("Snake game")
window.resizable(False, False)

score = 0
direction = 'down'

label = Label(window, text="Score:{}".format(score), font=('consolas', 40))
label.pack()

canvas = Canvas(window, bg=BACKGROUND_COLOR, height=GAME_HEIGHT, width=GAME_WIDTH)
canvas.pack()

window.update()

window_width = window.winfo_width()
window_height = window.winfo_height()
screen_width = window.winfo_screenwidth()
screen_height = window.winfo_screenheight()

x = int((screen_width/2) - (window_width/2))
y = int((screen_height/2) - (window_height/2))

window.geometry(f"{window_width}x{window_height}+{x}+{y}")

window.bind('<Left>', lambda event: change_direction('left'))
window.bind('<Right>', lambda event: change_direction('right'))
window.bind('<Up>', lambda event: change_direction('up'))
window.bind('<Down>', lambda event: change_direction('down'))

snake = Snake()
food = Food()

next_turn(snake, food)

window.mainloop()

Hurray! We have completed the project now. This is the entire source code for the snake game project.

from tkinter import *
import random

GAME_WIDTH = 700
GAME_HEIGHT = 700
SPEED = 100
SPACE_SIZE = 50
BODY_PARTS = 3
SNAKE_COLOR = "#00FF00"
FOOD_COLOR = "#FF0000"
BACKGROUND_COLOR = "#000000"


class Snake:

    def __init__(self):
        self.body_size = BODY_PARTS
        self.coordinates = []
        self.squares = []

        for i in range(0, BODY_PARTS):
            self.coordinates.append([0, 0])

        for x, y in self.coordinates:
            square = canvas.create_rectangle(x, y, x + SPACE_SIZE, y + SPACE_SIZE, fill=SNAKE_COLOR, tag="snake")
            self.squares.append(square)


class Food:

    def __init__(self):

        x = random.randint(0, (GAME_WIDTH / SPACE_SIZE)-1) * SPACE_SIZE
        y = random.randint(0, (GAME_HEIGHT / SPACE_SIZE) - 1) * SPACE_SIZE

        self.coordinates = [x, y]

        canvas.create_oval(x, y, x + SPACE_SIZE, y + SPACE_SIZE, fill=FOOD_COLOR, tag="food")


def next_turn(snake, food):

    x, y = snake.coordinates[0]

    if direction == "up":
        y -= SPACE_SIZE
    elif direction == "down":
        y += SPACE_SIZE
    elif direction == "left":
        x -= SPACE_SIZE
    elif direction == "right":
        x += SPACE_SIZE

    snake.coordinates.insert(0, (x, y))

    square = canvas.create_rectangle(x, y, x + SPACE_SIZE, y + SPACE_SIZE, fill=SNAKE_COLOR)

    snake.squares.insert(0, square)

    if x == food.coordinates[0] and y == food.coordinates[1]:

        global score

        score += 1

        label.config(text="Score:{}".format(score))

        canvas.delete("food")

        food = Food()

    else:

        del snake.coordinates[-1]

        canvas.delete(snake.squares[-1])

        del snake.squares[-1]

    if check_collisions(snake):
        game_over()

    else:
        window.after(SPEED, next_turn, snake, food)


def change_direction(new_direction):

    global direction

    if new_direction == 'left':
        if direction != 'right':
            direction = new_direction
    elif new_direction == 'right':
        if direction != 'left':
            direction = new_direction
    elif new_direction == 'up':
        if direction != 'down':
            direction = new_direction
    elif new_direction == 'down':
        if direction != 'up':
            direction = new_direction


def check_collisions(snake):

    x, y = snake.coordinates[0]

    if x < 0 or x >= GAME_WIDTH:
        return True
    elif y < 0 or y >= GAME_HEIGHT:
        return True

    for body_part in snake.coordinates[1:]:
        if x == body_part[0] and y == body_part[1]:
            return True

    return False


def game_over():

    canvas.delete(ALL)
    canvas.create_text(canvas.winfo_width()/2, canvas.winfo_height()/2,
                       font=('consolas',70), text="GAME OVER", fill="red", tag="gameover")


window = Tk()
window.title("Snake game")
window.resizable(False, False)

score = 0
direction = 'down'

label = Label(window, text="Score:{}".format(score), font=('consolas', 40))
label.pack()

canvas = Canvas(window, bg=BACKGROUND_COLOR, height=GAME_HEIGHT, width=GAME_WIDTH)
canvas.pack()

window.update()

window_width = window.winfo_width()
window_height = window.winfo_height()
screen_width = window.winfo_screenwidth()
screen_height = window.winfo_screenheight()

x = int((screen_width/2) - (window_width/2))
y = int((screen_height/2) - (window_height/2))

window.geometry(f"{window_width}x{window_height}+{x}+{y}")

window.bind('<Left>', lambda event: change_direction('left'))
window.bind('<Right>', lambda event: change_direction('right'))
window.bind('<Up>', lambda event: change_direction('up'))
window.bind('<Down>', lambda event: change_direction('down'))

snake = Snake()
food = Food()

next_turn(snake, food)

window.mainloop()

As we have completed the project lets check the output.

See also  notepad app using python - python project

Run the source code as shown in the above terminal.

After running the above given command you will get a new window opened and snake game will be started in that window.
For example check this screenshot of the output.

Screenshot after game over :

Alright congratulations you have made a snake game using python.

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